A group of Parvisepalum and the culture of them ( No. 2 )

(2)The middle area, from Guizhou plateau in China,@to the north area in Viet Nam. @
Paph. micranthum, emersonii and malipoense

Paph. micranthum

var micranthum

@In 1940, Paph. micranthum was discovered near Maripoa in china where is close to the border to Viet Nam. Although this species was discovered earlier than we expected, J.Tang and F.C.Wangt recorded in 1951 officially. It means the topics of the new species in China was ignored for over 10 years. Further more, this record was written by Chinese and nobody know about it. It was 1970 that we know the truth about Paph. micranthum and it is the same time almost for the discovery of Paph. armeniacum. We were surprised the new species , Paph. micranthum and armeniacum that are very different shape and color from the Paphiopedilums that we know before. The new species that are discovered in China, Yunnan were similar to Paph. delenatii. Before, Paph. delenatii is one of Brachypetalum like Paph. bellatulum and niveum but it is very easy that we identify the new species containing Paph. delenatii is very different from the species in Brachypetalum. So, Dr. Karasawa and Saitoh made a new subgenus of parvisepalum. The specific features of these new species is 1) Dorsal sepal is smaller, 2) the pouch ( lip ) is very big lacking a balance, 3) the fluorescence is longer. When we see the flower, it is valuable to observation for the good color and the bigger flower than we expect from the p;ant size.
@From the south of Yunnan to Guangxi, they have a very huge karstic area of limestone, they say Guizhou Plateau. The highest area is located in the north-west and about 2000 m and be lower to the south-east gradually. The lowest area is the bottom of valley and is about 80 m from sea level. When we see the plateau from the south, the the subtropical zones will changed to the plateau of drastic climbed. Tonyan River which is the one of very large river prepare the specific grand and run to east sea. The climate of this area is very complicate. Because the monsoon in winter and in summer makes the specific climate here. The upper area of Guizhou Plateau's climate is the similar to the climate of the subarctic zone. Around the middle area , about 1000 m from the sea level, it is in spring and/or autumn in a year that is warmer in winter and cooler in summer. Paph. micranthum is distributed around about 1000 m from sea level. And the species have 5 varieties, now 6 because the new one discovered from Viet Nam, were found out from these area dependent on the area and climate mentioned bellow.
@In Guizhou Plateau , we can see the special mountains like a bamboo shoot of lime stone and they say San Cou. The height of the mountains are about a few hundred meters. But it is very difficult to climb the mountains. On the mountains, there are a lot of terrace that is not so wide but flat place. Paph. micranthum like the terrace and expand their roots in the mixture of limestone and leaf mold of a crevice or a hollow. Especially, they like the east area of the mountains where they can get the morning sunshine. But he window is very strong and the face of the terrace is very easy to dry. So the mud of lime stone and leaf mold in the crevice is very important. In this area, they have the south or south-east monsoon containing high humidity from April to September. Especially, in April, the south area of Guizhou Plateau is covered by dense fog. Paph. micranthum grow under the leaf of palm tree, bamboo and fern and they don't get the direct sun shine. And they like the area near the stream when it rains but never in the stream. The lysome of Paph. micranthum is about 30 cm average in nature. In summer, it is 28~30 Ž at the Max. tem. and is 18 ~ 22 Ž at the Min. tem in the night. It is cloudy and sometimes they have a lot of rain. It is in winter from November to February. They have a strong and cold monsoon from the Chinese continental. But it continue to be fine and it will be warmer in the daytime.@The Max. tem. is about 27 Ž and the Min. tem. is about 4~5 Ž in the night.@In the night, it is very cold but it is very dry and the plants are never freezed. And also their leaves are adapted for the dry cold. The plants upper the grand will not be wet except by the dense fog in April and rain in summer but their root in the mixture of limestone and leaf mold are not dry. And the dry-cold and bright sun shine in winter bring the flowering of Paph. micranthum. From the middle of February and March, the season is going to change. They will have the warmer and wet monsoon from the south. But the climate will be worse suddenly. Although the rain is not so strong but the fog is very dense. In this season, the Max. tem. is about 15 Ž in the day time and the Min. tem. is about 10 Ž. Their will flower at the end of winter, usually in January and February and in some colonies in the north area ,they flower in the late of February and March or from March to April.

(1) Paph. micranthum var micranthum
@Near Seechan, Maripoa and Wanshan. The east area of Guizhou Plateau and the north side of Nyanin. In china, here is the southest area where Paph. micranthum grows. They grow about 600~800 m from sea level.
The flower of this variety is the biggest in Paph. micranthum and the pink color is very dark. This variety is the most valuable for appreciation. The upper half or two third of pouch is pink and the vain is distinct. In some of clone, all of pouch is dark pink color.

(2) Paph. micranthum var marginatum
@They distribute in Na Po area, the south east of Guizhou Plateau and near the border to Viet nam. It is about 1000 m from the sea level. They grow in the valley of Too Nyan River and Searun. The size of flower is smaller than Paph. micranthum var micranthum but the yellow color in the base of Petal is stronger. The pink color of pouch ( lip ) is similar to Paph. micranthum var micranthum but is more pale.

(3) Paph. micranthum var extendatum
They distribute in Runrin and Searun , the west side of Guizhou Plateau. it is about 1000~1100 m from sea level. They like a sheer cliff faced to north east of the limestone mountains. They grow in the leaf mold and lime stone sand occupied in depressions. In this area, they have warm and moisture monsoon from south east from July to October and they have dried cold monsoon from north west from October to April. But in winter, it continue to be fine. The sun shine does not strike plants directly but it is very bright in the reflected sun shine. In winter, it is 10 Ž in the Max. temp. and is 4 Ž in the Min. tem. In their pouch , it is pale pink at the base but almost is white and they don't have vein.

(4)Paph. micranthum var eburneum
They distribute in Ruihou an Rynrin, the north side of Guizhou Plateau. It is 25‹ north latitude and the northest area for Paph. micranthum in nature. Although here is the northest for Paph. micranthum, it is warm, about 28 Ž in the Max. tem in summer by the south east monsoon. The sun shine does not strike plants directly but it is very bright in the reflected sun shine. In the 4 of varieties as above, the color is the most pale and smaller than Paph. micranthum@var@micranthum. The flower is smaller and the white is stronger than the other varieties. The color of pouch is also white.

(5) Paph. micranthum var Guangxi@@
The variety was discovered after Paph. was prohibited to export and import by Washington Treaty. @Perhaps, they distributed in the southest area in China. The flower is whitish and the pouch is white. And the shape of pouch is not so large balloon but the pointed end.

NoteFIn truth, it is very difficult to identify these 5 varieties above critically. But from the color, size and shape, it will be easier to identify one group of Paph. micranthum var micranthum and Paph. micranthum var marginatum and another group of Paph. micranthum var extendatum and Paph. micranthum var eburneum. Because the former is pink flower with pink pouch especially and the latter's flower is whitish.
(6) Paph. micranthum var vietnamense @@
@This variety is the newest discovered variety from Viet Nam. The color f flower is whitish and the pouch is brilliant white. And the pink color on petal is very vivid. It is very similar variety to (5) Paph. micranthum var Guangxi.

Brief cultivation of Paph. armeniacum
@In nature, they grow under the severe climate but it looks like grow well in the better condition like in green house. But to flower, they have the different problems and it is not so easy to flower. For growing plant, it is 15 Ž , the Min. tem in winter but don't forget about that the technique of flowering is very different from the technique of growing. The 50 % of shade is enough i the whole year. They don't need fertilize so much and we give a small amount of solid type of fertilize or the 2 ~5 times, final 4000~10000 times dilution, more diluted of liquid type fertilizer in regular dilution. For Paph. micruthum, they like crypt-moss or bark alone for the compost . But I recommend you to use the mix compost. They don't like sphagnum moss, I guess. When it grow satisfactorily, they will make a few young plants by spread new lysomes. But don't cut the to divide the younger plants. You had better keep the young plants at least one year until their having some roots their own. In order to make the bad of flower, it must be the lower temperature under 15 Ž from in the late of autumn to the end of winter. If possible, it is better make under 10 Ž . In this season, they will need not only the lower temperature but also the sun shine. We keep it in our mind to make them sunbathe i fine days. The temperature will be higher a little bit than that in case of Paph. armeniacum.

Basically, I 'm using mix compost for Paph. micranthum. We van get the good result in case of crypt-moss for the compost too. They like water but we had better make it less than Paph. armeniacum. It should be a little bit....

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