１．The purpose of making hybrids
We have 2 of purpose mainly. The first is these procedure is one of the desolving problems to keep species as we can not make a meristem culture of Paphiopedilum now. So we expect the propagation of selected and/or nice clone by sibling or self closs. Especialy, in the self closs of clones in the high potencial genetical property, we expect to select the similar as or better clones than the partents in high rate from the seedlings. These selected nice clone will be very usuful for the second purpose that will be mentioned next. The second is to make good hybrids that are valuable for decorative flower. In these days, we can get good clones more easily now and can make better hybrids as we like unrestricted. To make nice hybrids is not a dream restricted for the limited breeder. It is very easy for the amature and teh bigginers. But don't make the hybrids so easily without consideration and use your own nomal flower because you have only the flower simply. It will take a few years to grow up and flower from the seedlings. It means you are expecting the flower for so long. Can you keep the emotion until the flower. It will be very vacant to wait the flowers for the thoughtless hybrids. The thoughtless hybrids will be the same value for growing as nothing. Finaly, the seedling will be desapeared until the flowring. So, it is one of the most important to make hybrids after considering so well about the parents' achievements for breeding.
２．The structure of flower and how to make hybrids
In order to make hybrids, you have to know the structure of flowers ( Fig. 1 ) first of all. Especially, about the pollen coupsule ( a ), stigmatic surface ( b ) and pouch ( c ), you had better dissect some Paph7s flowers before makig hybridization. When you decide the parentation, you have to decide which flower is better for male and the another is for female. In order to be easier making hybrids, you had better to take off pouch from the female flower. When you were good at making hybrids, you will be able to make hybrids through the whole on the back that you made by knife on the lower dosal and pouch of female flower.
The @rocedures of making hybrid is very easy ( Fig.2 ) as follows,
（１）Take pollen capsule ( a ) by teeth stick from the male flower.
（２）Put the capsul on the stigmatic surface（ｂ）of the female flower.
You had better use the female flower about one week after flowering for the female flower. And the female flower must be healthy because she has to keep the seed pods over haly years. And you have to record the breeding date and the parentation in label by a pencil or marker and keep the label on the flower's ste.
＜About pollen capsule＞
You had better use the pollen capsul about 1 week old at least, usualy 2 or 3 weeks after flowering. Just after the flowering, the polen is whitish and does not sticky. On the other hand, the best pollen will be fresh yellowcolor and very sticky. You may keep the pollen capsul in freezing from - 2- ~ -70 ℃ ( Fig. 3 ). It is very usuful to make hybrid for the parents whose flowering season should be different. The freezed pollen capsule will be kept for few years at least at - 20 ℃ and semipermanent at - 70 ℃. I have succeeded to use about 10 years freezed pllen capsule fro making hybrid. Of course you have to keep or freeze the fresh pollen capsele because the older would not be fresh in color and not sticky.